Media Measurement is first introduced in India in the 90’s with television and readership surveys. Let us see the various concepts and terms involved in Media Measurement.
Medium and Media Vehicle
All the different platforms available will be the medium and the particular choice of programme will be the Media Vehicle.
Medium: Press Vehicle: The Times of India
Medium: TV Vehicle: Balika Vadhu
Medium: Outdoor Vehicle: Bus Shelter
Reach is the percentage of the target audience that I reach on a particular medium. Following are the different types of reach:
Gross Reach: Let us suppose you publish an advertisement in TOI, Eenadu, and The Hindu and the below are you’ve reached 3, 2, and 2 percent respectively. Then, your Gross Reach is 7 percent. In this case, the duplicates are also added. There may be some people who might have seen your advertisement in both the newspapers.
Net Reach: In case of Net Reach, the duplicates are negated. For example if we have 0.3 percent of duplicacy between TOI and Hindu, then the Net Reach will be 6.7 percent.
Cumulative Net Reach: It is the accumulated net reach of a period of time.
Different Types of Readership are:
Total Readership: It is the total number of readers for a publication in a given time period. For example, the total readership of Outlook is 30%.
Average Issue Readership (AIR): It is the estimated number of readership for a single issue of a publication. If 2 out of 4 issues of Outlook in a month are picked then the AIR of Outlook is 15%.
Time Spent: Average time spent in minutes per day on each medium.
Television Rating Point (TRP)/Television Viewership Rating (TVR) :
It is the percentage of target audience in a particular market who have viewed any particular episode of a programme. For example, if there is a 30 min serial, and there are five people who watched this serial, then all of them might not have seen for the same period and amount of time. Let us say, the five people have watched for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 minutes of the serial. Then the TRP/TVR will be 80/150*100, where 150 is the ideal watching time for all five of us. In this theoretical example, the TRP is 53.
Gross Rating Point (GRP): If a serial has TVR of 3, and if you have bought 5 commercial spots, it is said you have bought 15 GRPs.
A mobile company may typically spend for 1500 GRPs per month. When one wants to compare if who among Airtel and Vodafone is shouting loudly then we need to compare the GRPs and other parameters. One should not compare the budget spent because the rate at which GRPs are bought is different for different companies based on the relationship and business. So, in the above case, just because Airtel is spending more money than Vodafone doesn’t mean they are shouting louder than Vodafone. Vodafone may have bought more GRPs at a lesser price than Airtel.
Opportunities to See (OTS):
It is the Gross Reach in numbers divided by Net Reach in numbers. It is a measure of the number of chances for an average member from the target audience to be exposed to an advertisement in a campaign.
GRP = Frequency x Reach; GRP = OTS x Reach
In general, new launches spend more on the Reach, existing brands spend more on frequency for maintenance.
Effective Frequency: For an advertisement to be effective, the consumer may need to see it multiple times. So, Coca-Cola decides that I want my target consumers to see my advertisement 5 times, then the effective frequency is 5.
Share of Voice: This parameter is very sought after, and generally used for comparisons. It is the GRPs for a particular brand expressed as a percentage of the GRP for the defined category. For example, if the GRPs for Coke for month of May is 1000, and the GRPs for soft drink category is 4000, then SOV for Coke is 1000/4000, 25 percent.
Television in India has its own importance with it being the prime source of entertainment for many households. There are close to 580 channels available in India. Each channel has its own popularity ratings (GRPs) as below:
star plus (total grp’s – 299)
ye rishta kya kehlata hai – 7.0
bidaai – sapna babul ka – 6.8
sabki laadli bebo – 4.5
kis desh main hai mera dil – 3.5
raja ki ayegi baraat – 2.9
colors (total grp’s – 272)
balika vandhu – 5.6
jai shri krishna – 4.9
na aana is des laado – 3.4
chhote miyan bade miyan – 3.3
uttaran – 3.3
zee television (total grp’s – 239)
chotti bahu – 3.8
dance india dance – 3.7
betiyaan ghar ki lakshmi – 3.5
agle janam mohe bitiya hi kijo – 3.0
shree – 2.3
Good amount of trend analysis can be done with this data and what is in the peoples’ minds. The ratings have been picked from Screen India.
Similarly, we have Share of Spends, CPT, and CPRM.